Essay on Narendra Modi

Narendra Modi Biography

The name “Modi” is undoubtedly a familiar name to every citizen of India. The full name of Prime Minister Modi is Narendra Damodardas Modi. Modi was born in Vadnagar, Mehsana, Bombay State (present-day Gujarat), on September 17th in the year 1950.

He is the current prime minister of India as of 2020, till the next elections which will occur in 2024. Also, he has been a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and has was elected the Chief Minister of Gujarat 3 times each term of 5 years between the years of 2001 to 2014. Also, he is the first PM outside of the Indian National Congress (INC) to win two consecutive terms with a full majority and the second to complete five years in office after Late. Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Early Life of Narendra Modi

Narendra Modi was one of the six children of Damordas Mulchand Modi and Hiraben Modi, in a Gujarati Hindu family as the third of six children. His teacher has described him as an average student with a keen interest in debate and theatre. He completed his higher secondary education from Vadnagar itself in 1969, received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from the School of Open Learning at the University of Delhi in 1978, and obtained a master’s degree in Political Science from Gujarat University in 1983.

Modi’s initial days have been full of struggle, as a child Modi helped his father at the Vadnagar railway station, and later ran a tea stall with his brother. He was introduced to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) when he was 8 years old. Also during his childhood, his family arranged engagement to a girl, as a traditional custom to his cast, leading to their marriage in their teens. Modi left his home and spent the next two years of his life traveling across Northern and North-eastern India, visiting various Sanatan Ashrams. Later Modi stayed in Ahmedabad and worked with his uncle before he finally became a full-time worker for the RSS (1970-1971).

Narendra Modi: Politics

Modi became an RSS regional organizer in the year 1978, managing RSS activities in the areas of Surat ad Vandodata, in 1979 he went to work for the RSS in Delhi. After his return to Gujarat, he was assigned to the BJP in 1985 by the RSS. And in 1987 his political career began with the BJP, as he helped organize the BJP’s Ahmedabad municipal election campaign, which they won. This accomplishment led to his election for the role of organizing secretary of the BJP Gujarat unit in 1987.

Modi’s hard work and his excellent capabilities led to his rise within the party and was named a member of the National Election Committee of BJP in 1990. He helped organize L.K.Advani’s 1990 Ram ‘Rath Yatra’ and Murli Manohar Joshi’s 1991-1992 ‘Ekta Yatra’ (Journey of Unity). Moreover, Modi’s strategic planning was credited central to the BJP’s state assembly elections victory in 1995. Furthermore, His strategy was considered as the key to the BJP winning in the 1998 elections, later in May of that year, he was promoted to BJP general secretary.

In 2001 as Keshubhai Patel’s health was falling and BJP started losing state assembly seats, the BJP national leadership Modi was chosen as a replacement. Replacing Patel, Modi was sworn as Chief Minister on 7th October 2001 and entered the Gujarat state legislature on 24th February 2002 by winning a by-election to the Rajkot – II constituency.

Modi served as Gujarat’s longest-serving CM of the BJP from 2001 to 2014. After that Modi resigned to become 14th Prime Minister of India, his party member Anandiben Patel became the Gujarat’s first woman chief minister.

During his reign in Gujarat, the Modi-Patel government invested in many development works, supported NGOs and communities in the creation of groundwater-conservation projects. They had built 113,738 check damns, helping recharge the aquifers beneath them. 60 of the 112 tehsils had recovered to their normal levels between the years of 2004 to 2010. It increased the production of genetically modified cotton in the state, making it the largest producing state in India, which lead to Gujarat’s agricultural sector growth at an average rate of 9.6% from 2001 to 2007. The Modi government brought the ‘Jyotigram Yojana’ scheme for the farmers, in which the agricultural electricity was separated from other rural electricity, to reduce the agricultural electricity cost.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi

With a demonstrated history as a capable leader and a promising member of the party, Modi was declared as BJP’s candidate for Prime Minister in the 2014 Lok Sabha election.

Modi got the highest votes in the 2014 elections and was announced as the 14th Prime Minister on 26th May 2014. As a leader, Modi has appeared to be a progressive, decisive, and development-oriented. The Modi government got rid of about 1200 obsolete laws in the first 3 years as PM, a total of 1.301 such laws had been repealed by the previous governments over 64 years time span. He started a monthly radio show called “Mann Ki Baat” to share his views and thoughts on current affairs. He was again sworn in as the Prime Minister of India on 30th May 2019.

The Modi government has contributed majorly to the digital movement in India with initiatives such as ‘Digital India’, ‘Make in India’ and ‘Skill India’ programmes. It has resulted in a significant boost in the number of active internet users in India; moreover, it has presented the citizens with multiple opportunities in terms of education, career and entertainment. The ‘Make in India’ is a programme initiated by the Modi government in 2014 with the goal of transforming India into a global manufacturing hub. It has opened doors for investors, and multiple enterprises have adopted this mantra.

The government has taken many such initiatives in various sectors for the betterment of the country as a whole; some of them are – ‘Ujjwala scheme’ to provide free LPG connection to rural households, ‘Stand Up India’ Scheme to provide bank loans between 10 Lakh and one crore to at least one Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe borrower and at least one Woman borrower for setting up Greenfield enterprises per bank branch, ‘Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana’ to provide loans up to 10 Lakhs to increase the confidence of the youth, educated or skilled workers aspiring to be entrepreneurs, etc. More noticeable actions from the Modi government include the Demonetization of the 500 and 1000 Rupees notes, the introduction of GST tax, efforts of bringing more foreign investments.


Therefore we can conclude that Mr. Narendra Modi has proven himself to be a capable leader both as a CM and as the PM. The Modi government has been seen to be more aggressive, innovative, and result-oriented than the previous governments. Modi, as a person has earned the trust and recognition of millions across the globe and taken various initiatives to establish himself among the great leaders of the world. We sincerely wish that the initiatives are taken by the Modi government turn out to be fruitful and lead India to its peak of success as a nation.

Essay on Sundar Pichai

Sundar Pichai Biography

Sundar Pichai is an Indian-American business executive. He is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the tech giant Google LLC and also its parent company Alphabet Inc. Sundar, who is now considered one of the most influential CEOs in the world, was born and brought up in a middle-class family and lived in a two-room apartment. Today, Sundar Pichai is one of the wealthiest CEOs in the world, with a net worth of $600 million (nearly Rs 43,200 crore) and an annual income of more than $2 million in 2019.

Sundar Pichai – Early life and education

Sundar Pichai’s full name is Pichai Sundararajan. Sundar was born on 12th July 1972 in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. His mother Lakshmi was a stenographer, and his father, Regunatha Pichai, was an electrical engineer at General Electric Company (GEC), the British conglomerate. Pichai grew up in Ashok Nagar, Chennai, and had a Hindu upbringing. Being an excellent student, he earned his Bachelor’s degree in metallurgical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. Moreover, he holds an M.S from Stanford University in material sciences and engineering, and an MBA from Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was named a Siebel Scholar and a Palmer Scholar.

After earning his MBA degree in 2002, he planned to pursue a Ph. D. from Stanford University but dropped out and worked as an engineer and product manager at Applied Materials for a brief period. He then worked with McKinsey & Company as a management consultant.

Sundar Pichai – Career and personal life

In April 2004, he joined Google. He initially worked on Google’s search toolbar, which could easily access and direct the Internet Explorer and Firefox users to the Google search engine. Pichai’s first significant accomplishment came into limelight when Microsoft replaced their default search engine from `Google’ to ‘Bing’ in 2006. As a solution to this, he introduced “Google Toolbar.” The success of Google Toolbar built the foundation for the launch of Google’s browser ‘Google Chrome’ in 2008, which allowed users to access Google directly.

Following the success of Chrome, Sundar made his identity in Google and became a widely known household name. It played a crucial role in his success at Google, he was promoted as the Vice-President of Product Development Division in 2008, and by 2012, he became the senior Vice-President of Chrome and apps.

He has been responsible for the success of various other Google products, including products like Google Drive and Google Maps. Furthermore, he represented Google at numerous global conferences such as the ‘Mobile World Congress’ and other product demonstrations. In 2013, he took charge of ‘Android,’ which was formerly managed by Andy Rubin.

Despite receiving many high ranked offers from companies like Twitter, Microsoft, he remained loyal to Google. Due to his vision, excellence, and leadership qualities, he was given the CEO position at Google on 10th August 2015.

Sundar Pichai is considered to be visionary and shares the same spirit as Larry Page and Serge Brin, who were the CEO and President of Alphabet, the parent company of Google. After the founders stepped down from their position, Sundar was promoted to the CEO of Alphabet Inc in 2019, making him one of the most Influential CEOs of the world.

Besides these professional achievements, Sundar Pichai is married to his lady love Anjali Pichai whom he met in IIT Kharagpur. The couple tied the knot in 2014 and has been blessed with two children.


Sundar Pichai’s journey from being a boy belonging to a lower middle-family to becoming one of the wealthiest and most influential CEOs in the world has inspired many and continues to do so. Sundar Pichai leads a humble life and maintains a good work-life balance. His story gives hope to millions and works as a reminder that even our most ambitious goals can be achieved through dedication, determination, and hard work.

Essay on Kargil Vijay Diwas

Essay on Kargil Vijay Diwas in english , Essay on Kargil Vijay Diwas 700 words

Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated every year in India on 26th July in honor of the martyred soldiers in the Kargil War that took place between India and Pakistan in the year 1999. It has been named after the victory of the Kargil war, it is observed on 26th July. The war ended with India recapturing the post which Pakistan army occupied with malice intention and successful withdrawal of enemy troops. However, the war resulted in casualties in Kargil and Dras sectors.

Kargil Vijay Diwas History

India and Pakistan has had border tensions. Though after the Indo-Pak War of 1971, there had been very few instances of direct armed conflicts between the two nations, however there were some military skirmishes in the 1980s regarding the control of the Siachen Glacier against which India launched (operation Meghdoot).

In the years of 1990s, the conflicts and tensions were increasing. Also, there was tension centering on the separatist activities in Kashmir and the conduction of nuclear tests by both the nations in 1998. Starting from 1974 when India exploded its first nuclear bomb in the Pokhran test range, known as “Smiling Buddha”. In an attempt to ease up the situation both the nations agreed and signed the Lahore Declaration in February in 1999, in the promise of providing a peaceful and mutually beneficial solution to the Kashmir issue.

Despite these, in late 1998 there had been activities of intrusion of Pakistani troops in India, codenamed “Operation Badr”. Some Pakistani troops and paramilitary forces entered the Indian side of the Line Of Control (LOC) with the aim of gaining control over Siachen Glacier and force India to negotiate a settlement of the Kashmir dispute.

The area that witnessed the infiltration is about 160-kilometre (100 mi) long and the general height of the outposts of the mountain ridges was around 5,000 m (16,000 ft) high, some as high as 5,485 m (18,000 ft) (“War in Kargil – The CCC’s summary on the war”). The temperature dropped as low as

−48 °C (−54 °F)( “Climate & Soil conditions”, Kargil), making it extremely challenging for the army of both the nations to stay there. Therefore, they had an implied agreement on vacating the post during this time period.

However, taking the undue advantage of the situation, Pakistan Army and some terrorists captured the India posts and Bunkers situated in Kargil and Dras sector.

These intrusions went undetected till May as they were grossly underestimated by the Army, leading to heavy damage in the initial stages. The total seized area is approximately between 130 and 200 km2 (50 and 80 sq mi).

Finally the Government of India responded with Operation Vijay, arming and mobilizing about 2 Lakh troops. The navy played a significant role as well in the operation in cutting off all supply

from Pakistan. The India Air Force (IAF) had joined the operation with ‘Operation Safed Sagar’.

All these joined efforts of blood and sweat of the Indian armed forces brought the war to an end on the 26th July of 1999, thus marking it as Kargil Vijay Diwas.

Though, 527 brave men of the Indian Armed Forces suffered martyrdom during the war.

Kargil Vijay Diwas Celebration

Kargil Vijay Diwas is commemorate to honour the war heroes and all those who laid their life at risk to serve our nation. Every year, the Indian Army organizes various events and functions across the country.

Some of those war heroes whom India will always be proud of, are – Captain Vikram Batra who was a battle casualty in the Kargil war at the age of 24, Lieutenant Balwan Singh planted the Indian tricolor at the top of Tiger Hill At 25 and was later awarded the Mahavir Chakra for his bravery, Then 19-years-old Yogendra Singh Yadav (now Subedar Major) was the youngest person to ever be awarded the Param Vir Chakra, just to name a few.

Also in honor of the martyred soldiers, the Indian Army has built The Kargil War Memorial in the town of Dras which is located on the – . Every year people come to visit and pay tribute to the Army Personnel who sacrificed their lives for our nation. It is now an important landmark and a major tourist attraction in Western Ladakh.


The objective of celebrating this day is to elicit the feeling of patriotism and a sense of pride in the men and women serving the nation tirelessly day and night while we are safe and secure from any outside intrusion. And to highlight the stories of valor by our brave soldiers and inspire those who were too young and those who were not yet born in those difficult times to witness the breathtaking courage shown by our soldiers.

Essay on Rafale

English essay writing on Rafale

In the month of September of 2016, India made an Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) worth of €7.87 billion (₹59,000-crore) with the government of France, for 36 Rafale multi-role fighter jets. The deal has a 50% offset clauses to be executed by Dassault Aviation and its partners in partnership with Indian companies. The basic cost of the aircraft is around ₹680 crore, making this deal is India’s biggest-ever purchase in this regard.

The first batch of 5 Rafale jets was delivered to India on 29th July 2020 as scheduled, though the spare parts of the aircraft were delivered earlier, and after the official induction of these fighter jets, they’ll join into the No. 17 Ambala-based ‘Golden Arrows’ squadron of the Indian Air Force (IAF).

Rafale deal with France

The Rafale is claimed to have ‘Omnirole’ capability to perform several actions simultaneously, such as firing air-to-air missiles at a very low altitude, air-to-ground, and interceptions during the same sortie.

An onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS) will come equipped with the aircraft, which suppresses the need for liquid oxygen re-filling or ground support for oxygen production.

Many international aviation manufactures expressed their interest regarding the Indian government’s plan to revamp its Air Force fleet by introducing Multi-Role Combat Aircrafts. After the IAF’s conduction of technical and flight evaluations, Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon were declared to have met its criteria; the Sukhoi Su-30MKI was also one of the considerations.

On 31st January 2012, the Indian Ministry of Defence announced Dassault Rafale as the winner of the MMRCA (The Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft) competition to supply the Indian Air Force a total of 126 aircraft, also with an option for 63 additional aircraft. Rafale was declared an L-1 bidder and the contract negotiations began with its manufacturer, Dassault Aviation, that year, and remained incomplete even after two years. There was no deal under the UPA government as there were some issues with the deal.

Though, India managed to negotiate the acquisition of the latest weapons package for the Rafale, which is beyond the standard. Out of the 36 Rafale jets, there will be 30 fighter jets and 6 trainers. These trainer aircraft will be twin-seater and with similar features of the fighter jets. Air Chief Marshal Birender Singh Dhanoa, who retired after a tenure of 41 years in the IAF, strongly spoke in favor of the deal and said that the force needed to jets to enhance its combat capabilities.

It includes SCALP, a precision long-range ground attack missile capable of destroying targets with extreme accuracy with the help of its highly accurate seeker and target recognition system. It has a range of 300 Km. The Rafales will be equipped with the MICA weapon system, which is integrated into Mirage 2000 aircraft of the IAF’s.

The METEOR is the best in class next generation of BVR air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) designed to revolutionize air to air missile and is capable of taking out enemy aircraft at a range of over 100Km. MBDA has developed the weapon by keeping in mind the common threats facing the UK, Germany, Italy, France, Spain, and Sweden. The Meteor is powered by a unique rocket-ramjet motor, which provides it with more engine power for a longer duration.

Furthermore, it’s guided by an advanced active radar seeker; Meteor provides the all-weather capability to engage a wide variety of targets from fast jets to small unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles. Various modifications specifically for India will come equipped with the jets, such as Israeli helmet-mounted displays, radar warning receivers, low band jammers, 10-hour flight data recording, infra-red search and tracking systems among others, apart from the missile systems.

Rafale: The preparations by the IAF

As preparatory measures for these extremely capable war-machines, the IAF aircrew and ground crew have undergone comprehensive training for the aircraft, including its advanced weaponry. Twelve IAF pilots and engineering crews have been fully trained on the Rafale fighter jets.

The immediate focus will be to ensure that the pilots and ground crew put their best foot forward and become integrated with the overall IAF operations at the earliest. Furthermore, another primary focus will be on the operational perspective of the aircraft at the earliest.

Moreover, in recognition of Air Chief Marshal (retd) B.S Dhanoa’s unrelenting efforts and support for the Rafale deal, the IAF has decided to put tail numbers with “BS” initials in 30 Rafales.

And RB series tail numbers will be carried by six Rafale trainer aircraft to pay tribute to Air Chief Marshal R.K.S Bhaduria, the current Chief of Air Staff who played a significant role for the historic deal as a chairman of the negotiating team.


The Rafale deal is nothing less than a historic decision, a big step towards taking the country in the right direction by enhancing its combat capabilities and ensuring its citizens’ safety. Though the deal has been controversial, its impact will be significant, especially taking the border tension with neighboring countries into account. With enhanced vision and more capable offense mechanisms, the deal will boost both the performance and confidence of India’s defense industry.

Essay on Eid al-Adha

Essay on bakra eid in english, importance of eid ul-adha, essay on eid in 500 words

Introduction to Eid al-Adha

Every religion in the world has some of its special celebrations and festivities which are unique to it. Muslims have two major such celebrations. These are Eid al-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr. The former is also regarded as Bakra-Eid or, Eid Qurban, and is considered to be holier of the two. Eid al-Adha translates to the ‘Feast of the Sacrifice’, as the name suggests the festival includes a ritual of sacrifice.

It is in honour of Prophet Ibrahim’s (Abraham) willingness to sacrifice his son as an act of obedience to God’s command; but before he could do it, God provided him with a lamb instead, marking his absolute obedience to his lord. Reminiscent of that, followers of Islam all over the world celebrate this holy festival with an animal sacrifice, usually a sheep or, goat. Though, the intention is not bloodshed; instead it’s about sacrificing something the devotees of Islam love and care for, showing their faith in the almighty. Hence, a significant portion of the sacrificed animal’s meat is given to the poor.

The origin and purpose of Eid al-Adha

The origin of the occasion can be found in one of the trials of Ibrahim’s life, where he was ordered by God to sacrifice his beloved son Ishmael. The incidents and conversations can be found in the Holy Quran, where Ishmael wholeheartedly agreed to be slaughtered by his father, as it was an order by God himself. Hence, they prepared to submit to the will of God as an act of faith and obedience.

Acknowledging Ibrahim’s obedience, willingness, and fulfilment of the revelations, God almighty blessed and honoured both Ibrahim and Ishmael. A lamb was sent from heaven by the hands of Angel Jibreel (Gabriel) to be slaughtered instead. Muslims all over the world celebrate Eid al-Adha to commemorate this holy event.

The purpose of this Eid is not about shedding of blood just for the sake of satisfying Allah. Instead, it’s about sacrificing something devotees truly love and care for to show their devotion to the almighty. It is also necessary that the meat of the sacrificed animal is shared among people, as it is considered holy.

It is divided into three equivalent portions – for family, for relatives and friends, and very important for poor and needy people. It is clear that the intention of the celebration is not bloodshed, rather it’s about faith, kindness, and equality. It is thought that the meat will not reach Allah, nor will the blood, but what reaches Him is the faith and devotion of his believers.

Celebrations of Eid al-Adha

Muslims worldwide offer the Eid al-Adha prayers (namaz) at the mosque. This prayer is offered at any time after sunrise and till sunset. The Eid prayers must be offered in the congregation; the participation of women in the prayers varies from one community to another. The Eid prayer consists of two rakats (raka’ah) with seven takbirs in the first Rakat and five in the second Rakat. Though, the offering of the prayers differs a bit for the Shia Muslims.

Men, women, and children dress their finest to offer Eid prayers and in performing the rituals. Besides the prayers and sacrifice, people meet and greet each other with immense love and kindness. Any communal barriers do not limit the festival; devotees invite their friends, relatives, and their near and dear ones on this day of celebration.

Both the Eids are celebrated in various parts of India with pomp and splendour; it is no less than a festive season. Various delicious cuisines are prepared especially for this celebration such as Biriyani, Sheer Khurma, Sewaiyan, Nihari, Halim, Phirni, Shahi Tukda, etc. are some of the most popular delicacies.


Hence, we can conclude that the festival of Eid al-Adha may be centred on religious beliefs and sacrifice; it is, more importantly, an occasion of holiness, devotion, and preaching, practising love and kindness. It brings people of various cultures and communities together and rejoices in the spirit of love and mutual respect. Both the Eids are celebrated with utmost joy, love, and enthusiasm all over India, which only goes onto justify India’s reputation as a secular, united nation and also strengthens the spirit of brotherhood among the citizens.

Essay on Krishna Janmashtami

Janmashtami essay, essay on lord krishna in english,janmashtami story in english

India is a country of diverse religion and dynamic culture where every religion celebrates many festivals such as Holi, Dussehra, Diwali, Raksha Bandhan, Eid-ul-Fitr, Pongal, Lohri, Ganesh Chaturthi, and many more throughout the year. Each Indian festival has its unique way of celebration, but something remains common like distribution of sweets, wearing new clothes, and sharing happiness with our near and dear.

Festivals have special importance in our country as it symbolizes the prosperity and heritage of our culture. It gives us a sense of enjoyment, relaxation, breaks the monotony of life, brings us closer every year, and offers the time needed to bond with family members. Janmashtami is also the festival that embraces joy in our lives and strengthens the bond of community.

Importance of Janmashtami celebration

Out of many happiest festivals, one is Janmashtami or Krishna Janmashtami that is celebrated to commemorate the birth of Krishna, the eighth and the most powerful human incarnation of Lord Vishnu. It is also known as “Gokulashtami”. Janmashtami is an annual Hindu festival that lies on Ashtami of Krishna Paksha, i.e., the eighth day of the dark fortnight. According to the Hindu lunisolar calendar, it falls in the month of Bhadrapada, and according to the Gregorian Calendar, it overlaps in August or September.

The story behind the birth of Lord Krishna is very amusing and popular. It is believed that he was born around 5200 years ago in Yadava clan of Mathura to Queen Devaki and her husband, King Vasudeva. Kansa was the Devaki’s brother, who was cruel and usurped the throne of Mathura forcefully from his father. Kansa agreed to let Devaki marry Yadav Prince Vasudeva in the hope of capturing Yadav clan. But when Devaki got married, a fortune-teller warned Kansa that one of the offspring of his sister would bring his end.

short essay on krishna janmashtami,paragraph on janmashtami

After that, Kansa imprisoned Devaki along with Vasudeva and killed all their children just after their birth. However, on the night of Krishna’s birth, a bright light filled up the prison, and Vasudeva took Krishna across the Yamuna river and leave him with his friend Nand and Yashoda. On the same night, Yashoda had also given birth to a baby girl. So, Vasudeva secretly carried the girl child to the prison and managed to save his eighth son.

Lord Krishna grew up in Gokul with ‘gwalas’, and all his childhood incidences are famous as ‘Krishna Leela’. Radha was the closest friend to Lord Krishna, who occupied an extraordinary place in his heart. As time passed, Krishna grew up and moved to Mathura to fulfill the main motive of his Avatara. He killed the tyrant ruler Kansa and established peace and harmony among people. Lord Krishna had also played an essential role as a political reformer and philosopher in an epic battle of Mahabharata. People celebrate the festival of Krishna Janmashtami wholeheartedly all over the country, especially in Mathura and Vrindavan.

Janmashtami celebration,janmashtami celebration ideas

Gokulashtami is a holy festival of Hindu, celebrated with great zeal and pomp. Many devotees keep fasting, sing devotional songs, night vigils (Ratri-Jagran) and perform many different rituals and ceremonies to make lord Krishna happy. They also decorate their houses, and women draw tiny footprints toward their home, symbolizing that lord Krishna is entering their houses. Temples are crowded with multiple Pujas, Bhajan, Satsang, and various Mantra chanting. Krishna was born at midnight thus, people worship the statue of Krishna and break their fasting by sharing sweets and food in the early hours of the morning. People spend the whole day dancing and singing songs of Lord Krishna, and many communities organize ‘Ras Leela’ or ‘Krishna Leela’ to enact the life of Krishna.

Another way of celebrating Krishna Janmashtami is the Dahi-Handi ritual. Lord Krishna was named ‘Makhanchor’, the one who steal butter as he used to steal butter with his friend from the kitchen of ‘gwalas’. Dahi-Handi is an event where the butter stealing activity of lord Krishna is narrated. An earthen pot, filled with butter and milk, is suspended with the help of rope and local guys gathered to make a human pyramid to reach the Handi and break it. Other than India, this festival is celebrated in Nepal, Bangladesh, Fiji, Pakistan, and the US. Therefore, Janmashtami is a day that is filled with celebration, happiness, and joy.


Lord Krishna is the god of love, affection, compassion, and tenderness. He used to play the flute symbolizing the power of love through divine music. Lord Krishna has taught us to follow the path of honesty and victory of truth over evils. Hence, the sole reason for the Janmashtami celebration is to bring people together to strengthen the principle of unity and consonance. Moreover, Janmashtami enriches enthusiasm, positivity, and eliminate the feeling of communal hatred.

Ganesh Chaturthi Essay

Ganesh chaturthi essay, essay on lord ganesha in english, why is ganesh chaturthi celebrated

India is a diverse nation composed of vivid religion and culture. Festivals are the backbone of our Indian culture, and it symbolizes the prosperity and happiness of people. There are many festivals celebrated throughout the year like Holi, Diwali, Lohri, Pongal, Eid ul Fitr, Christmas, etc. Out of these festivals, Ganesh Chaturthi is one of Hindus’s most sacred festivals, which is popularly known as Vinayaka Chaturthi. It is celebrated as a mark of the birth anniversary of Lord Ganesh, and it is believed that Lord Ganesh comes from Kailash to earth every year on this day. There is an old belief regarding the birth of Ganesh so, let’s discuss in brief.

The History behind Ganesh Chaturdashi

Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated all around the country, especially in Maharashtra, with great pomp and joy. According to the Hindu calendar, it falls in the month of Bhadrapada, and according to Gregorian Calendar, it comes in August or September. Lord Ganesh is known by 108 different names such as Gajanand, Vinayak, Bal Ganesh, etc.

Bal Ganesh is the favorite god of children, and they even call him friend Ganesh.

There is an ancient story behind the birth of Lord Ganesh. It is said that Goddess Parvati had made Ganesh with sandalwood to guard on the cave entrance while she will take a bath. One day Ganesh interrupted Lord Shiva and stopped him to enter into the cave. This made Lord Shiva angry, and he beheaded Ganesh. When Goddess Parvati came out and Saw Ganesh dead, she lost control of her mind and asked Lord Shiva to bring his son back; otherwise, her rage and anger can destroy the earth’s living creature. Lord Shiva promised the goddess Parvati to give a new life to Ganesh. He sent his followers to find a newborn baby but could only find an elephant’s child. Thus, Lord Ganesh got his new birth with the elephant head.

Moreover, Lord Ganesh is the god of wisdom, intelligence, and prosperity. It is said that he is the cleverest god among all, and stories of his wisdom are very popular. Once Ganesh and Kartikeya decided to travel, the whole world thrice, and the one who wins the race will be awarded by Lord Shiva. Karthikeya jumped on his peacock without wasting any time, but Ganesh circled thrice around his parents with folded hands. Lord Shiva asked surprisingly, “why didn’t you revolved to the world?” Then he replied, “I have already won this race because I have circled my parents, who are the whole world to me.” This epic reply of Ganesh pleased Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati. From then, Lord Shiva declared that Lord Ganesh would be worshipped first in every puja. He is the god of good health and wealth, and it is a sign of good omen to worship Lord Ganesh before the start of any auspicious work.

Ganesh Chaturdashi Celebration

Vinayak Chaturthi is ten days long celebration in four different ritual stages. The first one is Pranpratishtha, in which clay idol of Ganesh is installed in Pandals and houses. Shodasopachara is the next ritual, where people offer Puja, Aarti, sweets, and prayers to their deity. It is followed by Uttar Puja. In this ritual, Ganesh’s idol is moved among the communities to enrich them with happiness and blessings of Ganesh. The last stage of ritual is Ganesh Visarjana. The clay idol Lord Ganesh is immersed into water bodies like river or ocean so that he can join his parents on Kailash Parvata.

Ganesh Chaturthi symbolizes the beginning of joy as Lord Ganesh is the destroyer of all hurdles and obstacles. Temples and houses are decorated, and people organized many functions, sing devotional songs, and dance enthusiastically in the welcome of Lord Ganesh. Many devotees keep fasting, offer players, chant religious hymns, and distribute Prasadams to the whole communities. Modak has special significance in Ganesh puja because it the favorite sweet of Bal Ganesh, so it is prepared and distributed on a large scale. It is also believed that those who worship Lord Ganesh with his grandeur devotion and love will always be filled with happiness, joy, and long life.


On 11th day, Anant Chaturthi, Lord Ganesh, departs from the earth and return next year with more blessings and love. Every year, Lord Ganesh fills our life with joy, strength, patience, and success.

This event of celebration turned into a grand public event when Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a social reformer and freedom fighter, asked the citizen of India to celebrate Ganesh Chaturthi as a symbol of unity against the Britishers. Hence, Ganesh Chaturthi is the festival of harmony, consonance, and unity.

Essay on Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Essay on Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in English

subhash Chandra Bose was fondly called ‘Netaji’. He was one of the most important freedom fighters of India. Even though Gandhiji and Nehru are given the credit for India’s Independence, the contribution of Subhash Chandra Bose can’t be undermined. ‘Patriot of Patriots’ as described by Gandhiji, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January, 1897 at Cuttack, in Orissa. He was born to Janakinath and Prabhavati Bose and Was the ninth child among the fourteen children. Rai Bahadur, Janakinath Bose was a public lawyer by profession. He was a public prosecutor in Cuttack and later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council.

The family of Subhash Chandra Bose was a large one consisting of eight brothers and six sisters. During his school days, he was always serious, reserved and did not take much interest in sports. The sadhus and pilgrims visiting Puri, the famous shrine near his dwelling place, fascinated him. He was an intelligent kid and stood second in the school examination and took admission in
presidency College, Calcutta. In 1916, he beat an English professor because of his racist attitude towards Indians. As a result he was expelled from the college. But his father refused to admit him to another college. Over the course of time he got re-admitted in the same University in Philosophy. He passed with flying colours and achieved first class Honours in Philosophy.

Recognising his son’s intellect, his father was determined that Bose should become a member of high ranking Indian Civil Service (ICS). So, he sent him to England for further studies. In 1920, Bose passed the Civil Service and secured the fourth position. But, by this time the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre had taken place, which had disturbed him greatly.

Even though he passed the ICS, he was not interested in serving the colonial masters. By this time, Gandhiji had established himself as a leader of the masses. Like many others, Bose was also influenced by Gandhiji. So, he went to Gandhiji and offered
himself to work for the Indian National Congress. Gandhiji was not able to turn down this humble request and sent him to Calcutta to work under Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das. During the period 1921-25, he was mainly involved in the activities around Calcutta and was arrested on numerous occasions. This led to his being imprisoned. Later, he was again imprisoned along with Deshbandhu and the two lived together in jail, where Bose served his leader humbly, even cooked his food. From this time, Bose considered Deshbandhu as his guru.

When Deshbandhu became the Mayor of Calcutta, Bose became his Chief Executive. While holding this Office, Bose freely mixed with revolutionaries, which made the British Government arrest him and deport.

NOW he had ample time to think for his future course of action and he decided to go on the path of open revolution. In June 1925, Bose was deeply struck by the sudden loss Of his leader Deshbandhu. But he continued to work. In 1928, during the

Congress meeting the main agenda that was presented was to get a Dominion status for India. This was prepared by Motilal Nehru. But the Youth leaders rejected this. Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru wanted complete freedom for India at the earliest, whereas the Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through a Dominion Status To avoid any problem, Gandhiji suggested to give the British Government a time period of 1 year to give Dominion Status to India, failing which he himself would present a bill of complete freedom.

Everybody accepted this. Gandhiji tried very hard to get the Dominion Status for India, but failed miserably. So, at the next meeting the Bill of Complete Freedom () was passed.

On 23rd March, 1932 was hanged. Bhagat Singh’s martyrdom and the inability of the Congress leaders to save his life made Bose very angry and in a sense this made him realise that aggression was the best form of defence. Bose was arrested in 1931 for visiting the disturbed parts of Bengal. He was re-arrested on 2nd January, 1932 and subsequently exiled from India. In 1932, he went to Vienna and there he was deeply influenced by Vithaldas Patel, another Indian freedom fighter.

They recognised the need for collaboration between Indian nationalists and countries opposed to Britain and in their joint manifesto, they proclaimed, “Non-cooperation cannot be given up but the form of non-cooperation will have to be changed into a more militant one and the fight for freedom waged on all fronts.” In October 1933 Vithaldas Patel died.

After the death of Vithaldas Patel, Bose fought against the injustices. He organised students’ association. In November 1934, Bose published a book on Indian Nationalism called “The Indian Struggle”. During the period of 1932-36, he met reputed personalities like Mussolini in Italy, Felder in Germany, De Valera in Ireland and Roma Rolland in France. Some reports suggest that he also met Hitler, a meeting which provided no support to Netaji. The Irish nationalist leader De Valera in Dublin impressed him. He was arrested and was later released on 17th March, 1931

By that time, Subhash Chandra Bose had become very famous and Gandhiji proposed him to become the President of the Congress. In 1 938, he became the President of the Indian National Congress and presided over the Haripur session, a post he held for 2 years. During the period, he was honoured at Shantiniketan by Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore as ‘Deshnayak’.

At the end of this term, the elections for the Tripuri Congress session took place in 1939. He was re-elected defeating Dr Pattabhi, who was supported by Gandhiji. Bose resolved to give 6 months to the British to free India, otherwise there would be a
rebellion. His opinion was opposed. So, he resigned and formed a group called Forward Block.

In 1 939, when the World War II started, Gandhiji and other leaders were against doing anything anti-Britain. But Bose thought differently. He knew, for instance, that the fall of the Roman Empire had led to the freedom of its colonies. He decided to seek
foreign help for his cause of freeing India. He was arrested and kept in his house under detention. On 1 7th January, 1941 while everyone was asleep, Bose slipped out his house into a waiting car.

Disguised as a Muslim religious teacher, Bose managed to reach Peshawar 2 days later. Bose went to Italy, Germany and even Russia to seek help, but without much success. He decided to organise Indians on his own and he landed in Singapore and
became the commander of the Indian National Army or the Azad Hind Fauj and declared himself the Prime Minister of India. The whole of India rejoiced, as he raised the popular slogan “Give me blood and I will give you freedom

The INA marched to Andaman and Nicobar Islands, liberating and renaming them as Shaheed and Swaraj Islands. On 1 8th March, 1 944, it crossed the Burmese border and reached Manipur where free India’s banner was raised with the shouts of
‘Jai Hind’ and ‘Netaji Zindabad’.

But heavy rain prevented any further movement and the units had to fall back. Even then Netaji was determined. He wanted to go to Russia to seek Soviet help to fight the British. But the ill-fated plane, in which he was flying; crashed in Taipei on 1 8th
August, 1945 resulting in his death. For this brave leader, Bhagvad Gita was a great source of inspiration. Swami Vivekananda’s teachings also had a deep impact on him since his heydays. He loved to read fresh interpretations of India’s ancient scriptures.

Bose strongly disliked ‘Nazis’ racist practices. However, when he failed to contact Russians for help, he knocked on the doors of Germans. His stand was that in order to free India, even if he had to befriend the devil, he would do that. Thus, he will always be remembered and revered as the great patriot who risked his life, career, name, fame and everything else for one sole cause in which he believed passionately—the freedom of his country.

On 23rd August, 2007, Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe visited the Subhash Chandra Bose Memorial Hall in Kolkata and said to Bose’s family that Japanese are moved by Bose’s strong will for independence from British rule, and that Netaji is a much respected name in Japan. Bose will continue to inspire posterity to lead the nation to greater heights and make it the India of his dreams. Concluding with the slogan that he gave :

“Jai Hind. “

Essay on Ashoka The Great

Essay on Ashoka The Great ( Indian emperor )

In the annals of the world history, there have been many kings, but none greater than Ashoka. Popularly known as ‘Devanampriya Priyadarsi’ (He who is the beloved of the Gods and who regards everyone amiably), he reigned over most of India, South Asia and beyond. His story tells us that religion can act as a powerful force for the redemption of a human being. According to Buddhist traditions, Ashoka was born as the son of the Mauryan emperor Bindusara by a relatively lower ranked queen named Dharma. The Avadana texts mention that his mother was queen Subhadrangi. He was the grandson of another great king and the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, chandragupta Maurya. But defying all odds, young Ashoka excelled in military and academic disciplines. There was a great deal of sibling rivalry, especially between Ashoka and his brother Sushim, both as warriors and as administrators.

An impeccable warrior general and a shrewd statesman, Ashoka was very popular. He was a fearsome hunter, and according to a legend, killed a lion with just a wooden rod. His growing popularity made his elder brothers wary of his chances of being favoured by Bindusara to become the next emperor. The eldest of them, Prince Sushim, persuaded Bindusara to send Ashoka to Takshashila to quell an uprising.

But as news of Ashoka’s visit with his army trickled in, he was welcomed by the revolting militias and the uprising ended without a fight. Some more incitements from Sushim led his father to send Ashoka into exile. So, he went to Kalinga and stayed there incognito for many years. Meanwhile, there was a violent uprising in Ujjain. summoned Ashoka back. Ashoka went to Ujjain and was injured in the ensuing battle, but his generals continued the fight. Ashoka was treated in hiding by Buddhist monks and nuns. This is where he first learnt the teachings of Buddha. In the meantime, Ashoka’s father was taken ill. A clique of ministers lead by Radhagupta, summoned Ashoka to take the crown. As the Buddhist lore goes, in a fit of rage, Ashoka attacked Patliputra and killed all his brothers and threw their bodies into a well. At this stage, many called him Chandashoka’ meaning murderer and heartless Ashoka.

Brave and full of valour, after ascending the throne, Ashoka expanded the boundaries of his empire. At this point, he was called ‘Chakravarti’ which means ‘he for whom the wheel of law turns’. However, the conquest Of Kalinga turned the wheel of fortune for him. As the tale goes, Kalinge gave official refuge to Ashoka’s enemy (probably one of his brothers). This enraged Ashoka and he asked Kalinga’s royalty to submit before his supremacy. When they defied this dictat, Ashoka sent one of his generals to make Kalinga submit to his supremacy. However, Ashoka’.s general and his forces were completely routed. Baffled by this defeat, Ashoka attacked with the greatest invasion ever recorded in the Indian history till then. The whole of Kalinga was plundered and destroyed. After this devastation, Ashoka was left speechless. While he was walking through the battlefields of Kalinga after his conquest, he saw thousands of dead bodies lying there and the wailing of people. He was constantly haunted by his deeds in Kalinga.

The repentance at the brutality of the conquest led him to embrace Buddhism. He undertook a 256-day pilgrimage to holy places of Buddhism in North India. From that point, Ashoka, who had been described as ‘the cruel Ashoka’ (Chandashoka) started to be described as ‘the pious Ashoka’ (Dharmashoka). He propagated the Vighajjavada School of Buddhism and preached it within his domain and worldwide from about 250 BC.

Emperor Ashoka, undoubtedly, has to be credited with the first serious attempt to develop a Buddhist policy. He built thousands of stupas and viharas for Buddhist followers (about 84,000 such monuments were built). The stupas of Sanchi are world famous and the stupa named Sanchi Stupa I was built by Emperor Ashoka. During the remaining period of Ashoka’s reign, he pursued an official policy of non-violence called ahimsa. The unnecessary slaughter of animals was immediately abolished.

Moreover, rest houses were built throughout the empire to house travellers and pilgrims free of charge. Egalitarianism became a norm for the society. Slavery was non-existent in ancient India. Ashoka amalgamated Buddhism with material issues of concern, thus fulfilling Buddha’s wish of alleviation of people’s sufferings. To that effect, Ashoka had wells dug, irrigation canals and roads constructed. Other than rest houses, he also built hospitals, gardens and plantations of herbs.

To propagate his faith, the great Ashoka who believed in ‘dharma’, built many edicts. The Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath is the most popular relic left by him. Made of sandstone, it records the visit of the emperor to Sarnath in the 3rd century BC. It has a four-lion capital, which was adopted as the emblem of modern Indian republic. Ashoka ruled for an estimated 40 years, (273BC – 232 BC) and after his death, the Maurya dynasty lasted just 50 more years. But Ashoka’s greatest legacy is the first written language in India. Rather than Sanskrit, the language used for inscription was one of the current spoken form called Prakrit. One of his monument’s inscription read :

“All men are my children and I, the king, forgive what can be forgiven. “

He modified his foreign policy from that of expansionism to a peaceful co-existence with neighbours. He avoided any further conquests of territories and announced that conquests should be of human desires. He strived to spread ‘right conduct’ among his
people. Ashoka’s loftiness and his prowess can be gauged from the fact that it was not until some 2,000 years later under Akbar and his great-grandson Aurangzeb, that a portion as large as the sub-continent could be again united under a single ruler. Science fiction novelist HG Wells rightly says :

“Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history their majesties and graciousness and serenities and royal highnesses and (he like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines, almost alone, a star. “

Essay on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

“Sanitation is more important than Independence”; these words of Gandhiji have laid the foundation for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Clean India Campaign is one of its kind in the history of India led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on a perfect day of Gandhi Jayanti. On 2 October 201 4, Narendra Modi launched this nationwide campaign that aims to clean up the country in the next five years; for he believes that Gandhiji not only fought for independence but also for a
clean country.

The campaign aims to cover 4041 statutory towns to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. The campaign was launched by the Prime Minister himself by cleaning the roads in Delhi. Its inaugural proved one of the biggest campaigns when millions of students, employees and citizens participated in the event, cleaning various localities. Modi exclaimed “Is cleaning only the responsibility of the karamcharis? Do citizens have no role in this? We have to change this mindset.” He asked all the citizens including celebrities, sports legends and business tycoons to join the campaign.

Modi had invited nine public figures: Mridula Sinha, Sachin Tendulkar, Baba Ramdev, Shashi Tharoor, Anil Ambani, Kamal Hasan, Salman Khan, Priyanka Chopra and Team of Taarak Mehta ka Ooltah Chashmah — to make a contribution towards Swachh Bharat, share the same on social media, and invite nine other people to do the same, hence forming a chain. He has asked people to share their contributions on social media.

He has asked every Indian to spend 100 hours annually in this drive. He has even urged the need to build toilets for proper sanitation. Modi believes that other nations are clean not only because of the efficient clean drive, but because of the joint efforts of citizens too. The citizens over there are aware of their responsibility and thus refrain from littering.

Volunteer actor Ravi Kishan said, “….We always enforce our Fundamental Rights but we never try to carry out our Fundamental Duties. I’m supporting the Clean India campaign because just like our Prime Minister’s concern, I too share the vision of a Clean India, Green India.” Eminent people have come out themselves shouldering the responsibility. HRD Minister Smriti Irani has directed on the use of Corporate Social Responsibility funds for construction of toilets as part of the Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya Campaign.

Modi aims to fulfil the dream of clean India by the 201 9, the 150th birth anniversary of Gandhiji. To check the progress of the campaign, Modi has himself made surprise visits to various offices. His team of ministers too, has contributed by taking up the task of cleaning. Students of Delhi University have decided to study the impact of this campaign thereby suggesting scope for improvement. After the completion of 5 years they will submit the document including success rate, problem and various other studies and findings related to the campaign.

Clean India can inevitably boost the international tourism thereby adding to country’s growth. The campaign has just started, for its success every citizen has to put in efforts. Only then our nation can become a world-class country like European countries. No matter how successfully our economy booms; if the country is not clean at the ground level, the citation of being a developed nation will also not yield result. Modi maintains Indians can do it. If Indians can reach Mars with minimum expense
then they can even clean their nation.