Essay on Human rights in india
The notion of human rights came into existence in the late 17th century, though it’s use and relevance got defined in the mid 20th century. Human Rights got more importance after world war period especially after the Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) in 1948 by the United Nation.
Human Rights don’t have an exact definition. According to the Oxford Power Dictionary (1993), human rights are the ‘basic freedom that all people should have’. They are generally the fundamental rights to which is inherently entitled to every person, simply because they are human beings, regardless of their age, ethnic origin, location, language, religion, ethnicity, or any other status. So in other words, human rights are those rights which are essential for a dignified and decent life and adequate development of human personality.
Human rights Categories
Human rights can be broken down into two categories –
Civil, political rights: Civil & political rights are the very basic rights of human being such as food, shelter, clothing, health and earning one’s live-hood and the like. These rights are there to ensure that the government does not affect any individual’s independence. Furthermore, these allow humans to contribute to the involvement in the matters of the government as well as be determined and take action against the laws that violate basic human rights.
Social rights: These refer to the rights that are intended to improve the quality of life of the citizens and help in the development of their personality as well. These include the right to freedom of speech and expression, cultural and educational rights. It is every government’s responsibility to ensure that these rights are not violated, to maintain the overall well-being of the citizens.
Characteristics of Human Rights
The human rights were formed and developed keeping a few significant attributes in mind, they are-
Inalienability: Both human rights and humans are inseparable, and these rights must be treated equally around the globe. These rights demand treatment on the equivalent premises, equally round the world, and with the same emphasis by the international community. According to the World Conference of Vienna Declaration and Program of Action on Human Rights, which was held in 1995, all human rights should be universal, indivisible, and interdependent and related.
Comprehensiveness: The socio-economic, cultural, civil, and political rights are included in Human rights which are necessary for the overall growth and well-being of citizens. Hence, these rights are comprehensive.
Universality: Human rights are supposed to be universally applicable to human beings all over the world, without any discrimination based on caste, creed, colour, sex, language, and religion.
Justice ability: These rights are justifiable.
Non-absoluteness: These rights are not absolute; hence, restrictions can be imposed on these, if necessary.
The four pillars of the UNDHR
The instruments to the U.N.’s Human Rights Declaration of 1948 are,
- The individual is the bearer of rights
- Rights are promoted and protected by the acts of the state.
- The civil, political, economic, social and cultural aspects of all human beings are included in the rights
- The rights are universal
Later in 1966, the U.N. adopted two more such rights as supplements to the previously declared ones. They are – ‘International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)’ and ‘International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)’.
In context to India, in conformity with the UDHR, the Constitution of India provides all the fundamental human rights and ensures justice, equality, and freedom among all its citizens.
Six fundamental rights recognized by the constitution of India to ensure both individual and social rights, though the emphasis has been given on individual rights.
- Right to equality (Articles. 14-18)
- Right to Freedom (Articles. 19-22)
- Right Against Exploitation (Articles. 23-24)
- Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles. 25- 28)
- Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles. 29-30)
- Right to Constitutional Remedies (Articles. 32-35)
Moreover, to protect the Human Rights Act (1993), India’s first National Human Rights Commission was established on 29th September 1993.
Importance of Human rights
We can undoubtedly say that Human rights are critical to the overall development of a country and its citizens. These fundamental rights play a significant role in a person’s life and well-being.
These rights ensure protection to every person’s livelihood, social acceptance, and even life itself. It gives citizens the freedom to follow and practise their beliefs and gives them the privilege to think freely.
The implementation of the fundamental Human Rights has been extremely necessary for India, especially in tackling issues like untouchability, which was a severe social issue in India. Human rights also give a person the right to a fair trial without taking their cast, wealth, education, creed, and religion into account. It gives them an equal right to demand justice.
From a broader perspective, the acknowledgement of Human rights has been essential in reducing major issues like discrimination on people based on skin colour, religious beliefs and language, and activities regarding human trafficking, across the world on a large scale.
Human Rights Essay Conclusion
Hence, we can conclude that Human rights are not only crucial for the happy living of humans at an individual level, but it also plays a significant role in the betterment of the society as a whole. It allows a person to have a healthy, secure livelihood and also help in fighting discriminatory issues that are harmful to society. However, these are being violated mindlessly across the world, which affects thousands of innocent people. It is essential that governments and citizens work hand in hand and deal with these issues with utmost seriousness, as these acts of violations pose a severe threat to the prosperity and harmony of a nation.
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